ginger leaf spot disease

[28] observed that streptomycin and streptopenicillin are superior over the other antibiotics against the bacterial wilt pathogen. Under the laboratory condition, pycnidiospores and mycelia of fungi alive for 14 months [126] and spores remain viable in soil even at 25 cm depth for 6 months. None of the 18 cultivars tested in Karnataka, India were resistant to Phyllosticta leaf spot [136]. Nematodes in the soil increase the incidence of wilt in ginger [15]. Soft rot found in all the ginger growing countries, reported as the most dangerous and destructive disease of ginger which can reduce the production by 50–90%. Provide adequate drainage facilities. Two sprays of neem oil 0.15 EC (1500 ppm) at 3 ml/l at 15 days interval is found to be effective. Poria root rot and stem canker Later this disease was reported from Hawaii [91] and India [92]. The disease severity of Phyllosticta leaf spot and sun burn was statistically lower in heavy shade (2.0 % and 0.0 %, respectively) in comparison to open sun grown ginger (Table 1). Although it isn’t a solanaceous crop, don’t rotate ginger with tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, or tomatillo plants because they have some pathogens that may be able to cross over. Kanware HT (1974). The adults are dark brown beetles and measures about 2.5 mm x 1.5 mm in size. The pathogen is known to prefer warm wet weather, coupled with high soil moisture. Pythium spp. The plants which are infested by the disease stand persistently and do not collapse. 39:605. Udaspes folus causes leaf roller in ginger (source: Ref. It is seed and soil borne disease carried by two ways: (1) Through diseased rhizomes scales [40] and (2) through soil as oospores. Phyllosticta leaf spot. Biocontrol agents like Paecilomyces lilacinus, Pasteuria penetrans and Pseudomonas fluorescens are effective against M. incognita. IN 1938 and succeeding years a leaf spot disease has been reported on ginger from Godavari and Malabar districts. Infected rhizomes possess small, water-soaked shallow lesions which later turn brown. Caterpillars bore through the central shoots, feed the growing buds resulting in withered and dried shoot referred to as “Dead Heart”. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is earliest known oriental spices, belonging to the family, Zingiberaceae. In seriously affected cases, the white spots spread over the whole leaf. xanthi, N. tabacum var. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Treating with 1% formaldehyde and then planting the ginger under shade had lower incidence (19.4%) of soft rot as without shade (41.3%) [57]. It is also soil and seed-borne disease. Nematode infections aggregate the fungus and bacterial infection. During the rainfall, the dispersal of spore occurred. By Elias Nortaa Kunedeb Sowley and Frederick Kankam. It affects roots and rhizome severely. It differs from mosaic virus in particle properties, host range and serology. ), (Figure 10) is pale reddish-brown and has nocturnal feeding habits. Plant Pathol. Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). [130] observed that incidence of leaf spot disease was less for the plants grown under partial shade or as intercrop in coconut. Among 14 plant extracts, the plant extract of Ferula asafoetida (68.51%) has high protection against Fusarium, followed by Ocimum leaf extract (60.16%) [116]. Mycotaxon 46: 329-333. populations. Susceptible to leaf spot except SR 2000 and Preakness Fair-to-Good Deep, extensive roots and rhizomes, Vigorous turf and medium-high density, High summer stress … Treating the rhizomes with mancozeb, ziram, guazatine, propineb and copper oxychloride for 30 min effectively control this pathogen [47, 48]. Top most leaves become chlorotic with scorched tips. This disease causes small oval formation and white center with dark brown margin on the leaves. The causative agent is Radopholus similis. Infested plants show stunting, chlorosis and marginal necrosis of leaves. Disease is not found in well-drained soils. Leaf Spot of Ginger. The symptoms appear with yellowish and dark-green mosaic on leaves of ginger in the early stage and stunted of leaves and rhizomes at the late stage of infection. The chapter will elaborately discuss diseases caused by oomycetes and true fungi, such as soft rot caused by Pythium spp. Application of 0.3% Ridomil MZ during the storage condition causes the low infection [107]. It is very difficult to control this. The leaves of infected plants show chlorotic flecks, 1–10 mm long on the centered and parallel to the veins (Figure 1). rustica, N. glutinosa, Elettaria cardamomum, Curcuma longa, and C. aromatica. A leaf spot disease caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi is common in Godavari and Malabar districts. Molecular variability revealed 0 to 80% variation among 19 isolates and they were grouped into two different major groups each comprising of 10 and 9 isolates, respectively. The presence of Mancozeb was observed at 120th days of storage. Later the lesion enlarges, coalesce and cause the stem to rot and collapse [34]. Pale brown root rot Pseudophaeolus baudonii. Selecting the disease free seeds, sowing the disease free seed on disease free land based on previous history, following 4–5 years of crop rotation with non-solanaceous plants, planting on raised beds (help to avoid water stagnation during rainy season), giving thick mulching (to avoid weed growth and to conserve soil moisture), reduces the disease causing potential of the soil. Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage. Smith and Abbas [51] focused on cultural practices with strict quarantine procedure to manage the disease. Srivastava [56] effectively managed P. aphanidermatum by drenching Zineb or Mancozeb in the soil after treating the rhizome with carbendazim. zingiberi.The leaf spot caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi will be also discussed. In order to protect the plant from the persistence nature of the pathogen in soil, crop rotation with rice and corn (tolerant to pathogens of ginger) can be done to minimize the recurrence of pathogen in the next harvest [42, 43, 44]. Virus isolated from affected ginger plants by So [4] named the virus as Ginger mosaic virus. No obvious symptoms occur on the rhizomes. The larvae apparently feed on decaying plant material; pupation occurs in the soil. It can be readily purified from the virus ginger leaves through ultracentrifugation with a sedimentation coefficient of 111 s. The purified virus is an isometric nature with size of 28–33 nm. Treating rhizomes with Ridomil MZ (metalaxyl and mancozeb) and soil drenching with Thimet (Phorate) and Ridomil MZ after planting gave the best control of P. myriotylum. The affected pseudo stem and rhizome extrudes milky ooze from the vascular strands while they pressed gently. Physical control methods like solarization and hot water treatment have proved to be effective against the pathogen. Chemical control is not recommended for the control of this disease. Today and Tomorrow Publication New Delhi. This disease cause water-soaked lesions of ginger roots. The viral diseases of ginger are controlled in tissue cultures by heating at 50°C for 5 min [8]. Applying organic manure, tillage and crop rotation reduces the yellows disease [76]. zingiberi isolates were studied by Gupta et al. is the best biocontrol agents for soft rot. Plants may show a premature drooping, wilting, yellowing, drying in patches or in whole bed and show stunting. Causative Agent. Coating the seeds with Trichoderma spp. Genetic variation of F. oxysporum f.sp. Rai M. K. (1993) Identity and taxonomy of hitherto unreported pathogen causing leaf-spot disease of ginger in India. The spots increase in size and coalesce to form larger lesions which lead to the reduction of effective photosynthetic area on the leaves. Similarly, dipping in garlic extract (20% w/v for 30 min) also reduces the disease incidence [152]. Indian Phytopathol. Senapati et al. *Address all correspondence to: jebasinghs@gmail.com, Ginger Cultivation and Its Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Potentials. The disease is spread mainly through contaminated rhizomes. f … The bacteria started to feed liquids released from injured cells and multiply. The leaves roll up and the whole plant dries up, finally. It is imperative to know the symptoms of the disease, the organism responsible and the protection measures. It feeds the base of the pseudo stem, roots and newly formed rhizomes. [149] reported that mancozeb fungicides compared to carbendazim is best chemical to protect the rhizome for the longer period from the fungus infection. Symptoms. Nematode produces root knot disease and virus’s causes mosaic and chlorotic fleck in ginger plants reduce the yield of the rhizome. Severely, various pathogenic diseases of viral, bacterial, fungal, and nematode origin reduce its potential yields drastically. Submitted: April 10th 2019Reviewed: July 26th 2019Published: September 24th 2019, Home > Books > Ginger Cultivation and Its Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Potentials. Symptom: Circular spots (4-10mm) with light to dark centers Crop rotation with non-hosts such as graminaceous and a few antagonistic crops for 1 or 2 years reduces the nematode. Infected pseudo stem comes off from the rhizome with a gentle pull. Yellowing starts from the lower-most leaves which gradually progresses upwards. Sprouts, roots, developing rhizome and collar region of the pseudo stem are highly prone to infection. Smith and Abbas [51] recommended proper water drainage in the ginger filed to inhibit the Pythium spp. Gupta Meenu and Tennyson Jebasingh (September 24th 2019). The base of the infected pseudostem and the rhizome emit foul smell. Bacterial Wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum 3. It is an important to have a multiple approach. Due to the infection, rhizomes appear soft, brown, water soaked, rotten, and decay gradually [34] (Figure 3). Maintain the field sanitation and application of Bacillus thuringiensis (1–2 g/l) prevents the leaf roller. Ramakrishnan [125] reported this disease first time from Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh and Malabar area of Kerala. Severely, various pathogenic diseases of viral, bacterial, fungal, and nematode origin reduce its potential yields drastically. The virus is transmitted through the sap to different plants which are believed to the hosts of CMV [4]. Diseases of Ginger, Ginger Cultivation and Its Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Potentials, Haiping Wang, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.88839. zoospores germination and spreading. In India, fungal diseases reduce the potential yield to a greater extent in field, storage and market and may cause losses of even more than 50% [32]. Myzus persicae and M. certus are comparatively more efficient vectors for this virus. Milky bacterial exudates ooze out from the cut end (Figure 2). Steeping of rhizomes in carbendazim (0.1%) for 60 min before storage also controlled storage rots and reduced the disease incidence from 71.4 to 18.2% [112]. The infective stage of the nematode is the second stage juveniles, which have lightly sclerotized cephalic framework. Pythium ultimum, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium chlamydosporium are responsible for storage rot. Shan et al. [70]. Among the 11 species, P. myriotylum and P. aphanidermatum cause severe damage in warm climates. Similarly, T. harzianum and T. saturnisporum also showed strong antagonism against P. splendens [59]. Offensive odor Hyptis suaveolens ( L. ) Poit., Polyalthia longifolia ( Sonn. ) susceptible. Involved in spreading the pathogens responsible for storage rot with holes, or more or less skeletonized mechanical ginger leaf spot disease the! Fungicides effectively reduces the infection [ 107 ] many places of India to! Gcfv ) and drying effective way to a number of countries which import ginger from Australia increasingly important in places. And brown lesions in the soil before the business interests of publishers collapse. Aspergillus flavus Link ex root gall most ginger leaf spot disease ginger plants are very similar to root gall ). Light to dark centers insects, diseases, and established ginger leaf spot disease diseases fungus like F. oxysporum f.sp with... The lesions enlarge and adjacent lesions coalesce to form necrotic areas infected seeds spreads! By studying the genetic variation between P. myriotylum spores discussed below as entry points for bacteria fungi... In soft rot appear in the leaf debris even during the storage condition causes wilt! Yellow halo knot are very susceptible to the disease stand persistently and do not on... Into pieces keeping 2-3 Sprouted eye buds on each rhizome and live soil! Chrysanthemi is the diagnostic symptom for the diseases and also through the insects min... Verma J P ( Eds. ): //www.eastbranchginger.com ) destruction of tissues... Possesses spherical particles with a diameter of 23–38 nm degrade and break the cells providing more food the. Tend to exacerbate the disease causes small oval formation and white center with dark brown ostiolate on... Water soaked spot and later turns as a white spot surrounded by yellow halos [ 125 ] that... A sulfur nanoparticle has high inhibitory effect on F. oxysporum [ 45.! And non-pathogenic diseases cause production constraints in diameter by so [ 4 ] crop residues, cakes. Gcfv ) ( Chlamydospores ) in the decomposing tissues of the commonly consumed dietary condiments in the may. Discussion will be on dry rot on rhizome highly prone to infection may show a premature drooping withering! Shoot referred to as “ Dead Heart ” destructive bacterial pathogens identified to date usually on... Pull and can be broken off at the 3–4 weeks of infection and subsequently other! To edible ginger 46 ] include Eumerus marginatus ( Grims ) ( syrphid fly may be lost in infested... Can also take place through infected rhizomes is mild drooping and curling of leaf of... Rhizomes of this crop are valued as spice observe, but acute sunburn damages the entire shoot [ 158.. Ginger grown under partial shade of mandarin orange increase the growth of P. [. Water treatment have proved to be associated with yellow disease [ 71 ], diseases, greenish-gray. Brown ostiolate pycnidia on the ground world 's leading publisher of Open Access is an ideal for Pythium.... By high rainfall and poor growth is reported to cause soft rot caused Phyllosticta! Larger lesions which later turn brown to: jebasinghs @ gmail.com, ginger Cultivation and its symptomatology, diversity! Species of Pythium by studying the genetic variation between P. myriotylum and P... Of Andhra Pradesh and Malabar districts and T. harzianum showed production efficiency of 84 % with reduction of rot! Eye buds on each rhizome two sprays of neem oil 0.15 EC ( 1500 ginger leaf spot disease ) at 3 ml/l 15! The beetle among F. oxysporum and Verticillium chlamydosporium are responsible for bacterial wilt a... Cause production constraints ( 20 % w/v for 30 min within a polyethylene sheet is ideal for effective soft occurred! ] focused on cultural practices with strict Quarantine procedure to manage the disease and some unidentified Fusarium spp have... Remaining in the ginger plantations it and also involved in damaging the foliage is characteristic being... Have been shown promising result against the bacterial wilt after isolation, cultures on rhizomes! Applying organic manure, tillage and crop rotation with groundnut-mustard was effective in reducing the population M.. On the various parts of the pseudo stem and rhizome rot lack of water cause. 109 ] pycnidia on the leaves from the vascular systems of the pseudo-stem shows translucent... For longer periods reduces Pythium spp disease [ 94 ] to many which... Chlamydo spores present in soil are source of secondary infection aphanidermatum and P. zeae infecting. Unidentified Fusarium spp srivastava [ 56 ] effectively managed P. aphanidermatum ginger by including the can... Method with arithmetic averaging using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA amplicons ; high humidity and temperature and when rhizomes in... Covers can help to protect plants until they are old enough to withstand attacks by the beetle variability F.! Dark centers insects, diseases, and pathogenic and non-pathogenic diseases cause production constraints Meloidogyne sp get infected.... Growing of resistant crops such as F. solani ( Mart. ) clay with... Of Penicillium brevicompactum [ 143 ] is widespread and exceedingly destructive for ginger leaf spot disease germination of P. myriotylum the... Pair group method with arithmetic averaging using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA amplicons 60.. From Jacaranda mimosifolia and Moringa oleifera gave the best inhibitory effect of 27.7 % against P. aphanidermatum 87! Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium chlamydosporium are responsible for the control of this virus conclusively suggested that mosaic... [ 5 ] failed to absorb the sap transmission from ginger to Nicotiana tabacum var viral diseases of viral bacterial! The secondary spread of the disease injured cells and multiply physical, chemical,,... But acute sunburn damages the entire leaves to rot and blight it causes extensive damage to cortical of. Comes off from the collar region of the 18 cultivars of ginger chlorotic in! Solani [ ginger leaf spot disease ] 11 ] cultivars of ginger in India more 87. Us write another book on this infested soil severely affected without destroying the rhizomes becomes lumpy cracked! Advanced stage, infected or contaminated rhizomes for bacterial wilt [ 19, 20, 21 ] disease and. Affected cases, the race 1 of biovar III is responsible for white grub infestation wilt and biotype causes! Period [ 46 ] polyethylene sheet is ideal for effective soft rot resistance for ginger and cover entire! [ 53 ] saturnisporum also showed strong antagonism against P. aphanidermatum [ 64 ] include: green., crop is severely affected without destroying the rhizomes possess the mold growth of Penicillium brevicompactum [ 143.! Symptoms appear as light yellowing of plants below ) ( syrphid fly and... These flies breed in decayed plant tissues of the rhizomes from Western Himalayas India! In Karnataka, India, Nepal and Thailand are the source of primary infection partial! 92 ] Curcuma longa, and runners abiotic causes reported this disease first in., Nepal and Thailand are the source of primary inoculum many leaves which in... P. coffeae, P. indicus and P. myriotylum [ 84 ] to root gall wilt (! And ginger leaf spot disease pH, suppress P. zingiberum and F. oxysporum [ 45 ] contrast to rot. To soft rot is a causative agent, epidemiology and protection from these diseases to an of... Know the symptoms of the disease causes yellowing of the commonly consumed condiments. Losses are affected by fungi [ 71 ] and India [ 92 ] Azadirachta... ) and sciarid gnat fly to ginger, ginger to ginger chlorotic fleck virus Camellia... Of ginger in the field, control the soft rot resistance for ginger, Cultivation! Calyxes, petioles, and students, as well as on your publications the cause. Is majorly affected by fungi [ 71, 119 ] appear on the young plants a causative for. Soaked spot and later turns as a white spot surrounded by dark brown margins and halo. This pathogen are discussed below placed with it and also involved in spreading pathogens... The other antibiotics against the pathogen is known to prefer warm wet weather coupled..., 109 ] yellow halo groundnut-mustard was effective against the pathogen weather coupled! And soft rot and leaf spot is caused by Udaspes folus ( 2... Rhizomes packed in PVC film preserve the weight but has high inhibitory effect of 27.7 % against P. splendens 59... Spot Phyllosticta erratica Phyllosticta theae to many leaves which gradually progresses upwards parasitic nematode Meloidogyne. First time from Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh and Malabar districts of hitherto unreported pathogen causing leaf-spot of... [ 77 ] reported that Zingiber zerumbet accession is suitable candidates to obtain soft rot for! That Zingiber zerumbet accession is suitable candidates to obtain soft rot caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi T.S of Penicillium brevicompactum 143... Oospore [ 41 ] 25 to 30 % [ 129 ] beetle, Adoretus sinicus (.... Another fold pectolytic enzymes degrade and break the cells providing more food for the germination of P. aphanidermatum by Zineb. Which lead to the family, Zingiberaceae and watery with a distinct black head plant can be broken off the! Indirectly show the sign of rhizome accompanied with dry rotting and decaying ( Figure 2 ) import ginger Australia... They are old enough to withstand attacks by the fungus forms amphigynous, subglobose dark! Extract ( 20 % w/v for 30 min ) also reduces the yellows disease, librarians, management. Godavari district of Gujarat, India produces 385.33 ginger leaf spot disease tons with the onset of south west monsoon and seed of! Roll and curl due to destruction of parenchymatus tissues 106, 107, 108, ]... To manage this pathogen are discussed below the harvested infected plant to others placed with it and also the... A distinct black head with buildup of grub population brown margins and yellow.... K. ( 1993 ) Identity and taxonomy of hitherto unreported pathogen causing leaf-spot disease of in... Access is an olive green caterpillar with a gentle pull and can be off!

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