observed that streptomycin and streptopenicillin are superior over the other antibiotics against the bacterial wilt pathogen. Under the laboratory condition, pycnidiospores and mycelia of fungi alive for 14 months  and spores remain viable in soil even at 25 cm depth for 6 months. None of the 18 cultivars tested in Karnataka, India were resistant to Phyllosticta leaf spot . Nematodes in the soil increase the incidence of wilt in ginger . Soft rot found in all the ginger growing countries, reported as the most dangerous and destructive disease of ginger which can reduce the production by 50–90%. Provide adequate drainage facilities. Two sprays of neem oil 0.15 EC (1500 ppm) at 3 ml/l at 15 days interval is found to be effective. Poria root rot and stem canker Later this disease was reported from Hawaii  and India . The disease severity of Phyllosticta leaf spot and sun burn was statistically lower in heavy shade (2.0 % and 0.0 %, respectively) in comparison to open sun grown ginger (Table 1). Although it isn’t a solanaceous crop, don’t rotate ginger with tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, or tomatillo plants because they have some pathogens that may be able to cross over. Kanware HT (1974). The adults are dark brown beetles and measures about 2.5 mm x 1.5 mm in size. The pathogen is known to prefer warm wet weather, coupled with high soil moisture. Pythium spp. The plants which are infested by the disease stand persistently and do not collapse. 39:605. Udaspes folus causes leaf roller in ginger (source: Ref. It is seed and soil borne disease carried by two ways: (1) Through diseased rhizomes scales  and (2) through soil as oospores. Phyllosticta leaf spot. Biocontrol agents like Paecilomyces lilacinus, Pasteuria penetrans and Pseudomonas fluorescens are effective against M. incognita. IN 1938 and succeeding years a leaf spot disease has been reported on ginger from Godavari and Malabar districts. Infected rhizomes possess small, water-soaked shallow lesions which later turn brown. Caterpillars bore through the central shoots, feed the growing buds resulting in withered and dried shoot referred to as “Dead Heart”. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is earliest known oriental spices, belonging to the family, Zingiberaceae. In seriously affected cases, the white spots spread over the whole leaf. xanthi, N. tabacum var. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Treating with 1% formaldehyde and then planting the ginger under shade had lower incidence (19.4%) of soft rot as without shade (41.3%) . It is also soil and seed-borne disease. Nematode infections aggregate the fungus and bacterial infection. During the rainfall, the dispersal of spore occurred. By Elias Nortaa Kunedeb Sowley and Frederick Kankam. It affects roots and rhizome severely. It differs from mosaic virus in particle properties, host range and serology. ), (Figure 10) is pale reddish-brown and has nocturnal feeding habits. Plant Pathol. Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).  observed that incidence of leaf spot disease was less for the plants grown under partial shade or as intercrop in coconut. Among 14 plant extracts, the plant extract of Ferula asafoetida (68.51%) has high protection against Fusarium, followed by Ocimum leaf extract (60.16%) . Mycotaxon 46: 329-333. populations. Susceptible to leaf spot except SR 2000 and Preakness Fair-to-Good Deep, extensive roots and rhizomes, Vigorous turf and medium-high density, High summer stress … Treating the rhizomes with mancozeb, ziram, guazatine, propineb and copper oxychloride for 30 min effectively control this pathogen [47, 48]. Top most leaves become chlorotic with scorched tips. This disease causes small oval formation and white center with dark brown margin on the leaves. The causative agent is Radopholus similis. Infested plants show stunting, chlorosis and marginal necrosis of leaves. Disease is not found in well-drained soils. Leaf Spot of Ginger. The symptoms appear with yellowish and dark-green mosaic on leaves of ginger in the early stage and stunted of leaves and rhizomes at the late stage of infection. The chapter will elaborately discuss diseases caused by oomycetes and true fungi, such as soft rot caused by Pythium spp. Application of 0.3% Ridomil MZ during the storage condition causes the low infection . It is very difficult to control this. The leaves of infected plants show chlorotic flecks, 1–10 mm long on the centered and parallel to the veins (Figure 1). rustica, N. glutinosa, Elettaria cardamomum, Curcuma longa, and C. aromatica. A leaf spot disease caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi is common in Godavari and Malabar districts. Molecular variability revealed 0 to 80% variation among 19 isolates and they were grouped into two different major groups each comprising of 10 and 9 isolates, respectively. The presence of Mancozeb was observed at 120th days of storage. Later the lesion enlarges, coalesce and cause the stem to rot and collapse . Pale brown root rot Pseudophaeolus baudonii. Selecting the disease free seeds, sowing the disease free seed on disease free land based on previous history, following 4–5 years of crop rotation with non-solanaceous plants, planting on raised beds (help to avoid water stagnation during rainy season), giving thick mulching (to avoid weed growth and to conserve soil moisture), reduces the disease causing potential of the soil. Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage. Smith and Abbas  focused on cultural practices with strict quarantine procedure to manage the disease. Srivastava  effectively managed P. aphanidermatum by drenching Zineb or Mancozeb in the soil after treating the rhizome with carbendazim. zingiberi.The leaf spot caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi will be also discussed. In order to protect the plant from the persistence nature of the pathogen in soil, crop rotation with rice and corn (tolerant to pathogens of ginger) can be done to minimize the recurrence of pathogen in the next harvest [42, 43, 44]. Virus isolated from affected ginger plants by So  named the virus as Ginger mosaic virus. No obvious symptoms occur on the rhizomes. The larvae apparently feed on decaying plant material; pupation occurs in the soil. It can be readily purified from the virus ginger leaves through ultracentrifugation with a sedimentation coefficient of 111 s. The purified virus is an isometric nature with size of 28–33 nm. Treating rhizomes with Ridomil MZ (metalaxyl and mancozeb) and soil drenching with Thimet (Phorate) and Ridomil MZ after planting gave the best control of P. myriotylum. The affected pseudo stem and rhizome extrudes milky ooze from the vascular strands while they pressed gently. Physical control methods like solarization and hot water treatment have proved to be effective against the pathogen. Chemical control is not recommended for the control of this disease. Today and Tomorrow Publication New Delhi. This disease cause water-soaked lesions of ginger roots. The viral diseases of ginger are controlled in tissue cultures by heating at 50°C for 5 min . Applying organic manure, tillage and crop rotation reduces the yellows disease . zingiberi isolates were studied by Gupta et al. is the best biocontrol agents for soft rot. Plants may show a premature drooping, wilting, yellowing, drying in patches or in whole bed and show stunting. Causative Agent. Coating the seeds with Trichoderma spp. Genetic variation of F. oxysporum f.sp. Rai M. K. (1993) Identity and taxonomy of hitherto unreported pathogen causing leaf-spot disease of ginger in India. The spots increase in size and coalesce to form larger lesions which lead to the reduction of effective photosynthetic area on the leaves. Similarly, dipping in garlic extract (20% w/v for 30 min) also reduces the disease incidence . Indian Phytopathol. Senapati et al. *Address all correspondence to: email@example.com, Ginger Cultivation and Its Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Potentials. The disease is spread mainly through contaminated rhizomes. f … The bacteria started to feed liquids released from injured cells and multiply. The leaves roll up and the whole plant dries up, finally. It is imperative to know the symptoms of the disease, the organism responsible and the protection measures. It feeds the base of the pseudo stem, roots and newly formed rhizomes.  reported that mancozeb fungicides compared to carbendazim is best chemical to protect the rhizome for the longer period from the fungus infection. Symptoms. Nematode produces root knot disease and virus’s causes mosaic and chlorotic fleck in ginger plants reduce the yield of the rhizome. Severely, various pathogenic diseases of viral, bacterial, fungal, and nematode origin reduce its potential yields drastically. Submitted: April 10th 2019Reviewed: July 26th 2019Published: September 24th 2019, Home > Books > Ginger Cultivation and Its Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Potentials. Symptom: Circular spots (4-10mm) with light to dark centers Crop rotation with non-hosts such as graminaceous and a few antagonistic crops for 1 or 2 years reduces the nematode. Infected pseudo stem comes off from the rhizome with a gentle pull. Yellowing starts from the lower-most leaves which gradually progresses upwards. Sprouts, roots, developing rhizome and collar region of the pseudo stem are highly prone to infection. Smith and Abbas  recommended proper water drainage in the ginger filed to inhibit the Pythium spp. Gupta Meenu and Tennyson Jebasingh (September 24th 2019). The base of the infected pseudostem and the rhizome emit foul smell. Bacterial Wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum 3. It is an important to have a multiple approach. Due to the infection, rhizomes appear soft, brown, water soaked, rotten, and decay gradually  (Figure 3). Maintain the field sanitation and application of Bacillus thuringiensis (1–2 g/l) prevents the leaf roller. Ramakrishnan  reported this disease first time from Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh and Malabar area of Kerala. Severely, various pathogenic diseases of viral, bacterial, fungal, and nematode origin reduce its potential yields drastically. The virus is transmitted through the sap to different plants which are believed to the hosts of CMV . Diseases of Ginger, Ginger Cultivation and Its Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Potentials, Haiping Wang, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.88839. zoospores germination and spreading. In India, fungal diseases reduce the potential yield to a greater extent in field, storage and market and may cause losses of even more than 50% . Myzus persicae and M. certus are comparatively more efficient vectors for this virus. Milky bacterial exudates ooze out from the cut end (Figure 2). Steeping of rhizomes in carbendazim (0.1%) for 60 min before storage also controlled storage rots and reduced the disease incidence from 71.4 to 18.2% . The infective stage of the nematode is the second stage juveniles, which have lightly sclerotized cephalic framework. Pythium ultimum, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium chlamydosporium are responsible for storage rot. Shan et al. . Among the 11 species, P. myriotylum and P. aphanidermatum cause severe damage in warm climates. 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